ELP Artisans

Dear Parents, AKA. Officers – First – thank you for assisting your classroom with this adventure. The ELP experience is one you and your child will remember for a lifetime. This packet is to assist you to ready yourself and your group for the overnight experience to Colony Ross. The more prepared you are, and the more prepared the students are, the better the experience for all. Please read the packet carefully. The packet is in two sections: first section is for pre-site preparations and the second section is for the onsite visit. You will need to bring the on-site section with you as it has pertinent information.

Please remember that you are coming to a state park. Do NOT remove any objects that are lying on the ground: rocks, shells, glass, bones etc.

If you find anything that appears to be historically or environmentally important please leave it where it is found and advise park Interpretive Specialist of the item's location. All features of the park are protected. Remember: Take only pictures and leave only footprints.

Also remember that many things that have been done in the past are not acceptable today.  Butchering of live animals on-site or bringing in weapons is not permitted.  All butchered meat must be dressed before you bring it to the fort. State Park rules and regulations must be observed. If you have any questions please call the Interpretive Specialist.

Skilled artisans were an important part of the Ross Colony. There were carpenters, metal smiths, blacksmiths, shipwrights and such.  Fine ships were built by the Russians in the Sandy Cove.  The first altar fixtures for Sonoma Mission were made by the craftsmen at Ross.  Mariano Vallejo relied upon Russian blacksmiths in the early years of the Petaluma Adobe. Artisans may also choose to do sketching, watercolor, weaving, spinning, needlework or other such crafts.

Artisans supplied many of the manufactured goods used at Ross. They were also involved in the repair and maintenance of imported items. As artisans at Ross, you are responsible for the maintenance and manufacture of some equipment.

EQUIPMENT SUPPLIED FOR ARTISANS: Coping saw, blades, auger bits, hand plane, coping saw, hammers, wooden mallets, handsaws, nail puller, hand drills, draw knives, odd chisels, and more.

Brief History and Walking Tour - Read this to your employees in your group in the classroom and bring this information with you for your onsite tour.

Regulations and Privileges of the Employees (historic) - Read this to your employees


1.                  Research the items that would have been essential for the skills of an artisan at Settlement Ross depending on their task, e.g. a sewer, artist, builder, blacksmith carpenter, coopers, shipwrights, or other craftsmen and women. 

2.                  See if you can find modern examples of some of the Fort Ross crafts in the community where you live.

3.                  See if you can visit some people in your community who are engaged in woodworking, weaving, and metalworking.  How does this craft differ from what was practiced at Fort Ross?

4.                  Ideas – stencil head scarves, hats, aprons, or tablecloths. Learn to embroidery. Learn to weave, design patterns for painting spoons or boxes.

Encourage students to bring a minimum of personal gear.


 2.         WARM SLEEPING BAG, PAD & GROUND CLOTH--You will sleep on wood floors in the fort buildings.

3.         EATING UTENSILS: Cup, plate and/or bowl, knife, fork, spoon, and water bottle. 

4.         PERSONAL TOILET ARTICLES:  Don't forget sun screen, the sun can be very strong. Bring toothbrush and toothpaste.

5.         ANY NECESSARY MEDICATIONS:  Include written instructions for the teacher; give medications and instructions to the teacher upon departure.

6.         PENCIL:  For writing in journals and sketching.

7.         HEADGEAR: Russian style babushkas (scarf) for girls and/or a warm hat for night watch. Sun hats are highly recommended for students and adults alike, especially for spring or fall dates.

8.         CHANGE OF CLOTHES AND SHOES:  Children and parents should wear their costume to the fort. Bring a second set of clothes as well. Even if the weather looks warm, evenings are always quite cold on the coast. Students' feet and clothing often get wet during the day's activities therefore two pairs of shoes are essential. Black rain boots are highly recommended.


10.       NAME TAGS: Create your own name tag with a Fort Ross design and character's name.

Role Play Characters for the Artisans

The names listed below are all male characters. It is OK for females to take on a male role and dress as such. It is also OK for a female to have a female name and be in the artisans in a dress. Females were artisans too!

Vasilii Vanovich Grudinin - A Russian- Carpenter and shipbuilder. He learned shipbuilding while employed as assistant to shipwright Lincoln who was in Sitka in 1805-1809. At the Ross settlement in 1816 he laid the keel for the Rumiantsev, which was launched in 1818. The Buldakov was launched in 1820. The brig Volga was launched in 1822. The brig Kiakhta was launched in 1824. The oak that Vasilli used was unseasoned or it may have been that the California oak was unsuitable. The vessels were soon deemed worthless. Shipbuilding was abandoned at Ross and in March 1825, Grudinin was sent back to Sitka on the Kiakhta. He received a raise to total 1,000 rubles a year plus 400 rubles food ration allowance. He continued repairing and working on ships. He was married while at Fort Ross; her name may have been Vera. He had a daughter, Agrafena, born January 11, 1825, a son Mikhail, who died in August 1825 (age unknown), and daughter Natalia who was born August 1826 in Sitka.

Ludwig Choris: (Artist) A German - Born in 1795 in Germany. In 1814 he enrolled in the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. In 1815 he traveled on the round-the-world voyage of O.E. Kotzebue on the brig Rurik with Chamisso and Eschscholtz. He made hundreds of drawings and paintings depicting the life of indigenous peoples of America, Asia, Africa, and Polynesia. He returned to live in Paris and publish his works. In 1828 he was killed by bandits while on a trip to Mexico.

Leontii Ostrogin- A Creole- Worked as a blacksmith for the RAC. In 1832 he was sent to the Ross settlement on the brig Polifem. He made fittings for rowboats and other vessels, wheels, tools and other items. He also made iron items ordered from the missions. He went back to Alaska, married Anna Oskolkov. They had five children.

Mikhail Tikhanov (Artist) - A Russian - In 1806, at age 17 he received a scholarship to the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. He received a gold medal for the painting 'The Shooting of Russian Patriots by the French in 1812". Because he was a 'serf', he was not able to receive the medal.  He finished schooling in 1815. In 1817 he traveled on the round the world voyage with Golovnin and the sloop Kamchatka. Forty-three paintings exist of this voyage in a museum in Russia, although there may be more. Five of these painting are of California Indian people. He did a full face and profile of each person. He was very careful in portraying the clothing, ornamentation, tools, and life styles of these people. Back in Sitka he became very sick. He lived another 40 years, although never painted again.

Vasilii Antipin - A Russian - Carpenter and ploughman. He died at Ross in 1821. The Ross manager in 1822, Karl Schmidt is said to have "deeply regretted the sudden death last year of the best carpenter, Vasilii Antipin, as none of the other men had any shipbuilding skills except for Korenev, who wants to leave, and Permitin". He has also been described as "the only Russian who knew how to farm".  He was married to a Coast Miwok woman Katerina Ukkelya. They had two children: a son, Alexander, and a daughter, Matrena.

Vasilii Titov - A Creole - A blacksmith for the Company at Ross. He drowned in 1825.

Vasilii Vasil'ev - A Russian - He was originally from Tobol'sk in Russia. He arrived at Ross on the Il'men in July 1820 with his wife, Anna, and three of his five children from the Fox Islands. He is listed as a Promyshlennik and a carpenter receiving 100 rubles for his work building the Volga in 1822. He is reported to have lived in a dwelling upstream of the fort where it was pleasant and quiet, and also near the Russians named Grudinin, Permitin, and Zyrianov. He died May 13, 1826. He left his house and field valued at 925 rubles to his wife. The Company recommended writing off his debt of 869 rubles as a loss.

Mikhailo Rastorguev - A Kodiak or Aleut or Creole - He arrived at Ross on the Il'men in 1820. Mikhailo worked at Ross as a carpenter, turner, and block pulley maker. He was married to Aprosinya (Kodiak) and had two children, Mariia and Nikolai. Another child was born, however the name is unknown. They owned a house valued at 500 rubles and a farm worth 200 rubles. He was given 100 rubles each as bonuses for his work on the Volga in 1822 and the Kiakhta in 1824. He received another raise in 1827. He died in 1829 owing the Company 766 rubles, 42 kopeks. His property was left to his wife and children upon his death.

Karl Flink - A Lutheran Finn - He worked as a joiner at Ross. His wife Anna and son Stefan both came to Ross with him, all arriving in 1833. He built a threshing machine and was granted a bonus for doing so. He was 39 when he died at Ross.

Alexei Matveev Korenev - A Russian - He worked at Ross as a carpenter. His first wife, a Kashaya named Ichemen Anis'ya, returned to her village. He later married a Kodiak woman, Paraskeve, in 1824. He had a house, a garden, a bull, and two cows. No children appear in the Company records, although he may have adopted two children during his time at Ross. He was paid 200 rubles for building the Volga in 1822 and 220 rubles by Schmidt in 1824 for a plot of land. He received several bonuses and raises. He died in debt in 1832.

Matvei - A Kodiak- He was an axe and saw worker at Ross from 1815 to about 1833. He was married to a Coast Miwok woman, Kytypaliva, and had a daughter, Ashana Alimpiada. He was also noted to be an archer or marksman.

Sergei Trukhmanov -He is either a Creole or a Kodiak - He worked at Ross as a woodcutter, saw and axe man. He received a bonus for being a distinguished woodcutter in 1822. In 1824 he received another bonus of 50 rubles on his blacksmith work on the Kiakhta, and in 1827 he received a raise for his long-term commitment to the Company.  He was living with a woman who may have been Kashaya. They had two children. They had a house worth 200 rubles and a field valued at 125 rubles. When he died he owed the Company 744 rubles, 44 kopeks. He had been at Ross nearly 12 years at this time. His property was given to the Indian woman and their children. The Company was willing to write off his debt.  Two boys, Nikolai Trukhmanov age 15 and Nikander Trukhmanov age 10, are listed in the 1836 confessional lists of Father Venianminov. They are most likely his sons.

Suggested Russian Crafts

Please remember that you must provide your own materials for the following projects.

Text Box:


One very popular traditional Russian craft is painting wooden spoons. There are books on this art in the bookstore and library at Fort Ross. Check out your local library for books on Russian crafts.

Supplies needed: wooden spoons, red, yellow and black NON-TOXIC paint, small tipped brushes.


Supplies Needed:

Unfinished Wooden Box, pre-assembled

Small screwdriver

Fine-tip Paint Brush


Deco Art Dazzling Metallic Glorious Gold Paint – 2 oz.

Envirotex-Lite 8 oz. (Polymer Coating)

Ceramcoat Glossy Exterior Varnish 8 oz.

Color photocopy on cardstock paper pictures of Russian scenes for decorating. You can use actual lacquer box paintings from book, The Fine Art of Russian Lacquered Miniatures

iniatures, by Vladimir Guliayev.

Black paint

Foam Brush for black paint (small size)

Foam Brush for varnish

Ultrafine pastel glitter – Light blue or lavender (1 tube)

Wooden craft, popsicle sticks to stir  Envirotex-Lite Polymer solution

Paper cup

Wax paper

Aim-a-flame Instant lighter


With a small screwdriver, remove hinges and front latch from box. Save.

Paint entire box, inside and out with black paint – two coats.

When dry glue on cutout Russian scene.

Using fine-tip brush "Dot" around the perimeter of the top and sides with gold metallic paint. Let dry for ½ hour.

Mix Envirotex-Lite in disposable paper cup (about ½ " of each part together).

Add just a tiny pinch of Ultrafine glitter.

Stir for 2 minutes; pour coating on just the top of the box. Spread evenly.

Then according to the directions "flame" the air bubbles out of the coating.

Let dry for at least 24 hours on wax paper without touching.

When completely dry varnish the remainder of the box with Ceramcoat Glossy Exterior Varnish and foam brush. Let dry completely for 1 hour.

Screw back on hinges and front clasp.


Supplies Needed:

1 precut wood "football" shape. Approximately 3 ½"  by 2 finished

Fine-tip Paint Brush


Super Glue

Pin backing for pin - clip

Deco Art Dazzling Metallic Glorious Gold Paint – 2 oz.

Envirotex-Lite 8 oz. (Polymer Coating)

Color photocopy on cardstock paper, pictures of Russian scenes for decorating. You can use actual lacquer box paintings from book, The Fine Art of Russian Lacquered Miniatures, by Vladimir Guliayev.

Black paint

Foam Brush for black paint (small size)

Ultrafine pastel glitter – Light blue or lavender (1 tube)

Wooden craft, popsicle sticks to stir  Envirotex-Lite Polymer solution

Paper cup

Wax paper

Aim-a-flame Instant lighter


Paint wooden "football" with black paint – two coats.

When dry glue on cutout Russian scene.

Trim edges of pin if paper extends over sides.

Mix Envirotex-Lite in disposable paper cup (about ½ " of each part together).

Add just a tiny pinch of Ultrafine glitter (miniscule amount)

Stir for 2 minutes; pour coating on just the top of the pin. Spread evenly.

Then according to the directions "flame" the air bubbles out of the coating.

Let dry for at least 24 hours on wax paper without touching.

Using fine-tip brush "dot" around the edges of pin with gold metallic paint. Let dry for ½ hour.

Super glue the pin backing. Paint on date and/or name on back for authentic finish.


Khokhloma is a 300-year old Russian tradition of decorating wooden boxes, spoons, bowls and vases.  Linden logs are harvested and seasoned for two years.  Some are selected by wood carvers, while others are sent to the turning shops, where the same lathes from the time of Peter the Great are still used today.  After the shaped pieces have dried in the kiln room, a thin layer of clay "primer" is applied and it is dried again.  Three coats of oil are then applied and the surface is ready for tinning.  The piece is kiln dried once more and the shiny, silvered work is now ready for the artist's hand.  The silvered piece is hand painted without any initial sketching, insuring that it is an original, unique work of art. 


There is not enough time to assemble and decorate the benches. So you can assemble at the fort and decorate in the classroom afterwards, or bring assembled and painted benches with you. Follow the instructions in the Manual for building the benches.

Paint the pieces with Latex Flat Black Interior paint before you assemble. (Two coats of black paint on top, one coat on the rest of the bench.)

Supplies Needed:

Assembled and painted benches

Color photocopy on cardstock paper, pictures of Russian scenes for decorating. You can use actual lacquer box paintings from book, The Fine Art of Russian Lacquered Miniatures, by Vladimir Guliayev.

Victorian style border stickers, old-fashioned animal stickers, flower borders


Fine-tip Paint Brush

Deco Art Dazzling Metallic Glorious Gold Paint – 2 oz.

Creamcoat Glossy Exterior Varnish.

Foam Brush for varnish.

Sponge, wipes for clean up.

Newspaper to cover the work area.


Glue the cutout Russian scenes on top.

Decorate corners, sides of the bench with border stickers etc.

Using fine-tip brush "Dot" around the perimeter of the top and sides with gold metallic paint. Let dry for ½ hour.

Varnish the remainder of the box with Ceramcoat Glossy Exterior Varnish and foam brush 2-3 coats on top, 1-2 coats on the rest of the bench. Let dry completely for 1 hour.



10" by 10" thin, 20 gauge copper/tin

Metal cutter

Hole puncher



Hook and Chain

Tea candle


Cut an equilateral triangle (each side 9 inches long) out of copper/tin.

Punch holes at the corners with a hole puncher.

Puncture holes with a nail to create designs (stars, spirals, your name etc.) on the outer triangles.

Fold along the "fold" lines to make a pyramid.

Place a tea candle at the bottom.

Attach the hook and the chain through the punched out corner holes.

You will have to undo the hook to light your candle.

Be Aware: Copper/tin surfaces can get hot.

Note: You may cut out the triangles and punch out the corner holes before your arrival at the fort.


by Madame Zoya 

Traditionally eggs are exchanged at Easter time between family and friends.  There are many symbols in the patterns as well as meaning in the color.  Young children were given mostly white eggs and older people were given darker colored eggs.

The Pisyanka comes originally from the Ukraine.  The patterns vary from village to village.  The villages in the valleys tended to have floral patterns.  The mountainous regions preferred the more geometric patterns.  There are other styles of eggs throughout Russia: wooden eggs, which are painted or inlaid with small beads; or chicken eggs which are painted one color and then the pattern is scratched into the shell.

Over 2000 years ago people were enjoying the custom of decorating eggs.  In creating these delicate treasures, the peasant folk believed that great power was embodied in the egg.  They decorated eggs to celebrate the warming of the sun as it brought new joy and vigor to life.  Spring was the logical time for celebration since the cold, dark winter was past.  The sun warmed the soil again, and life was no longer such a constant struggle.  What a welcome change!  A farmer might be presented with an egg decorated with shafts of wheat wishing him a bountiful harvest.  Rakes and other tools can be included to signify the "wish" for him to practice the art of farming with success.  Young married couples are often presented an egg decorated with a chicken design, the symbol of fertility.  Important elements of the design are Ribbons and Lines.  The "Endless Line (Bbezkonechnyk)" represents the everlasting cycle of life.  The line goes around the egg, meets itself and starts over again.


White – Purity and innocence

Yellow – Youth, happiness, love kindness

Orange – Everlasting sun, strength and endurance

Light Green – Spring, new growth, hope, freedom from bondage

Light Blue – Sky with life giving air and good health

Red – Sun, happiness, life, hope and passion.

Dark Red – Harvest color denoting gathering of fruit in the fall

Black – Eternity, darkest time before dawn

Pink – Success

Royal Blue – Royal color, higher life and trust

Brick/Brown – Mother Earth color bringing forth bounty

Purple – Faith, patience, trust and fasting

Dark Green – Bountifulness, hope, victory of life after death.


Rooster – Rich married life blessed with many children

Hen – Fertility

Deer and Horses – Good Health, Wealth, Leadership and Prosperity

Rams – Strength, Leadership, Dignity and Perseverance

Spiders – Patience

Fish – Life,

Wolves' Teeth – Protection, Loyalty, Wisdom and a Firm Grip

Flowers – Love, charity and good will

Sunflowers – The warmth of the sun

Roses – Love and caring

Evergreen Trees – Eternal Youth

Empty Rose – Beauty and wisdom

Grapes - The growing church, wine,

Wheat – Good health and bountiful harvest

Triangles – Holy Trinity

Cross – Ancient symbol of good luck

Rakes – Good husbandry and prosperity

Ladders – Prayers, ascent to heaven

Diamonds – Knowledge

Water – Wealth, bountiful harvest

Curls/Spirals – Defense and protection

Meandering line – Everlasting life

Sun – Life, growth and good fortune

Star – God's love towards man, purity and life.

Bring this Onsite Packet



By the time the long and winding car ride is over (you may want to supply each car with a few plastic bags in case of car sickness emergencies), the students are truly excited. It is a VERY good idea to burn off a bit of that energy before they arrive at the fort itself.

The walk from the Reef Campground to the fort is a wonderful experience. It is a short walk (only about a mile, 15-30 minutes), safe away from the edge of the cliffs, beautiful and a great way to begin the students' historical experience.  It is a wonderful visual experience to see the fort looming ever larger on the coastline as you get closer and closer.

The campground is about ten miles north of Jenner. It is a good idea to plan for a snack when you arrive. When everybody has arrived, all cars will drive to the fort to quickly unload the gear, leaving behind the teacher, children and enough adults to make the walk safely. Note: The campground is closed December 1 through March 31. Please walk around the gate. There is a pay phone at the campground entrance.  You must monitor the students at all times, to avoid misuse of this phone.


Walk downhill through the campground until you get to the parking area/turn-around at the bottom of the road. Look up the hill to the North for the trail to Fort Ross. The trail is marked. Follow the trail to the Sandy Cove; descend to the sand, cross the creek, and up to the fort. Don't rush on the hike. Encourage them to ask questions. Look at the local flora and fauna on the marine terrace and out to the sea for ships or whales. Taking your time to enjoy and learn gives the drivers more time to unload. If the cars are still unloading in front of the fort, then slow your walk or spend some time at the cove.

WARNING:  On very rainy days or on days just after heavy rains, the creek may be impassable. If it has been raining, please call us at the fort a day or so before your program date to ask if it is possible to safely cross the creek.


Drive from the campground a few miles north to the fort entrance. Go past the entrance kiosk and drive to the dirt road at the end of the parking lot. Follow this road to the fort itself. The speed limit on this road is 10 mph. Please drive slowly.


Please find the Park Interpretive Specialist inside the Officials' Quarters for instructions. It works best to take personal gear out of the cars and put it just inside the fort wall or if the ground is very damp to pile it up on the benches or the picnic tables inside the fort. If it is raining all the personal gear will go in the Rotchev House for the day. Do not put gear into the buildings in which the children will be sleeping. Personal gear will be moved into sleeping quarters after the fort is closed to the public at 4:30. Food and kitchen gear can be carried to the kitchen area by the fire pits in front of the Officials' Quarters. You will need to unload very quickly to insure that cars are moved and drivers are back at the fort before the children arrive from their walk.  As soon as the vehicles are unloaded, drive your car back to the Visitor Center Parking lot. Cars must remain in the upper parking lot during your visit! The next morning when you are ready to leave Colony Ross, you may bring cars to the front gate of the fort only long enough to load supplies.

For groups who cannot walk from the campground (light rain, heavy mist, creek too high) we request that you let the children off at the end of the parking area and walk to the fort compound. Give time for the students to arrive at the fort before bringing the cars down. When the cars arrive, have the children help unload. After unloading supplies, all vehicles must be parked in the parking lot. It is best not to stop at the Visitor Center when you arrive in the morning because it can detract from the historical experience of the fort. If it is raining hard please drive directly to the Fort and unload gear.

Artisans'  Onsite Task Sheet

Officers: 1.) ________________________ 2.) _________________________

Fort Ross Artisans:

1.  ______________________________           AKA ______________________

2.  ______________________________           AKA ______________________

3.  ______________________________           AKA ______________________

4.  ______________________________           AKA ______________________

5.  ______________________________           AKA ______________________

6.  ______________________________           AKA ______________________


  1. Inventory the tools and materials available to you.

  2. Complete an artisan project. There are suggestions in the crafts section or you can design your own. Try to do a project that is typical of the Russian colony.

  3. Ask for the branding iron if you are doing a wood project. Use it on your bench or perhaps brand a piece of scrap wood for each artisan in the class.

  4. Prepare a skit, song or game for the evening's entertainment.

  5. Return tools to ELP closest.

  6. After 4:30, move personal sleeping gear into front of Rotchev House

  7. Know your Night Watch and morning clean up chores.

Rules and Responsibilities:

  1. Follow the Officers' instructions at all times.

  2. Obey all safety rules; be very careful with tools.

  3. Put tools away; clean and rake work area when finished.

Nightwatch:  11:00 – 1:00. Wake up Hunters in the Northwest Blockhouse for next watch.

Morning Responsibilities:  Pack personal gear, parents clean and sweep front of Rotchev House and the Officials Barrack's.  Remove litter, make sure wax is off tables and floors, fold tablecloths, parents sweep the entire building. Carry lanterns back to ELP closet. Help carry all state park gear to ELP closet and put in right place. Make sure all park gear is dry. If your group is finished and another is not, ask:  "What can I do to help?"

Artisan Officers: You are responsible for the ELP closet. Make sure all gear is present, clean and dried and in the right location. If anything is missing please advise the Interpretive Specialist.

Stockade Litter Pick Up – All groups line up shoulder to shoulder and walk the inside of the fort for a full stockade cleanup.

Morning Hike:  Orchard, beach, or cemetery hike.

Night Watch

Night watch is a unique part of the ELP and it is mandatory.  It becomes a time of reflection. Surrounded by the coastal night and sounds, students can imagine what it must have been like at the fort in the "old days".  An on-site night watch log is available to record any thoughts the students may have while on the night watch. Your students may also bring their own journal to write in at night watch.  Parents must sleep in the same area as their assigned group so they can get the group to watch duty quickly and quietly.


Each role group will have three tin candle lanterns.

Lanterns should be out when the group sleeps.

No lanterns burning without adult supervision inside buildings.

Night Watch Duties:

·        Keep close eye on glass candle lanterns.

·        Keep the fire going- a small fire is all that is necessary.

·        Each employee will have two Russian tea cakes and one cup of cocoa. Keep the teapot filled with water.

·        Write in night watch log.

·        Take a night hike; star gazing (weather permitting).

·        Walk the perimeter of the fort as a group.

·        Quietly play checkers, staves or cards to pass the time.

·        Clean up your mess when your watch is over.

·        Wake the next group as quietly and quickly as possible.

·        Notify the teacher in case of any kind of problem.

Night Watch Reminders:


·         Each employee will be accompanied by an officer at all night time activities.

·        Block the privy doors with a piece of wood to prevent them from slamming.

·        Students are not to play with candles or candle wax.

·        At no time should students wander off alone.

·        The First Aid Kit will be kept at the kitchen area.  Emergency phone is in Interpretive Specialist's office.

Night Watch Schedule and Sleeping Arrangements:

Night watch is important for the safety of the fort and the group. The following schedule is for an all-night watch.  The sleeping arrangements described work well for waking one watch group while not disturbing others.        Militia serves the fifth night watch to start fires for cooks.

First watch:                            9:00 - 11:00         Cooks              sleep in the Kuskov House

Second watch:                            11:00 -   1:00         Artisans:           sleep in front of Rotchev House

Third watch:                           1:00 -   3:00         Hunters:          sleep in Northwest Blockhouse

Fourth watch:                         3:00 -   5:00         Gardeners:       sleep in the back of Kuskov House

Fifth watch                             5:00 -   7:00         Militia:             sleep in Southeast Blockhouse

Wake-up for breakfast              7:00 -                  Cooks: